She cites research which shows that children as young as four display fixed or growth mindsets and those with the former will keep doing easy puzzles rather than moving on to something more challenging. However, it is also important to realise that Dweck believes that mindsets 'can be changed'.
Strategies for change
1. Giving good feedback
Some of the specific recommendations which Dweck suggests to protect young people from the limitations of the fixed mindset are related to praise and criticism and have been outlined within this chapter.
2. Information on the brain
Another of Dweck's major suggestions is that we need to present young people with information on the brain and its huge potential. This lesson would necessarily include information on how learning allows the brain to form new connections and how these connections become stronger.
3. Inspiring role-models
Giving young people information on how figures they know, or admire, managed to succeed through effort and good strategies is another useful device in encouraging them to adopt a growth mindset. Positive stories are another method for helping young people to see the potential for change.
Copyright: Centre for Confidence and Well-being